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CENTIPEDES & MILLIPEDES
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CENTIPEDES & MILLIPEDES
CENTIPEDES & MILLIPEDES
By The Five Musketeers:
Nader Boutros Ghali
Habitats and Food Sources:
Habitat of Millipedes:
Usually millipedes are active at night, but they can be found during the day.
Millipedes live under rocks, boards, the tree bark, or in piles of moist dead leaves
. Most millipedes live in slightly wet places that are moist or humid. Some kinds of millipedes live in dry places like the desert.
Also, many kinds of millipedes live in the cities, and inside houses in the basement or lower areas.
Millipedes can live up to 10 years in their life time.
What Millipedes eat:
Millipedes eat fungi, dead leaves, or dead animals. Since they are detritivores, they only eat the decaying matter from them.
Where Centipedes Live:
Centipedes live under logs, damp leaf
and sometimes in the soil
They also live in basements,
bathrooms, closets and between walls.
A centipede can live up to 100 years old.
a protective covering of organic material laid over the soil around plants to prevent erosion, retain moisture, and sometimes enrich the soil.
What Centipedes eat:
Centipedes detect its preys such as soft-bodied insects, spiders, worms and other arthropods
by using their antennas which is covered by dense hairs.
After the centipede has found its prey and cornered it, it will then use its fangs to inject a venom-like substance which paralyzes its prey, and then the centipede holds its prey using the fangs. Once the prey is eaten by the centipede it is broken down by the jawbones of the centipede.
Most centipedes are carnivores and they can eat other Centipedes.
There are several different ways that millipedes mate. They can reproduce sexually by attracting their mates with a squeaking noise they make with their feet. Another way that millipedes can mate is the male leaves his spermatophores on the ground uncovered and the female will then find it and store it with her spermathecae. Some species of the millipedes don't even have to mate because they are parthenogenetic; which means they are able to produce offspring without the mating process. Also, males can spin a web and put their sperms into the web then the female will come by and store it in her spermathecaem which is similar to the other mating process. The females will then lay her eggs in the ground; laying around 200 eggs.
Millipedes hatch from eggs - hatchlings have only the first three pairs of legs. There is some maternal care of the eggs. Millipedes molt (shed their old exoskeleton) as they grow, with each molt they gain more segments and legs.
Most species must mate to reproduce. The male usually places a sperm packet in a web on the ground. He then attracts the female to the web by tapping her back legs with his antennae. This courtship may last for hours. Eventually the rear of her body comes into contact with the web and she takes the packet into her reproductive organs. A few kinds of centipedes are capable of parthenogenesis, where the young develop from unfertilized eggs. Only females are produced by this method of reproduction.
Some species of centipedes lay their eggs one at a time. In other species the female digs out chambers in rotten wood or soil and lays up to eighty or more eggs all at once. She wraps her body around her eggs and cleans them constantly so funguses, molds, or hungry predators do not harm them. Of these species some will eventually camouflage the eggs with bits of soil and abandon them. Others will remain with their eggs, even until after they hatch. The larvae are unable to hunt and remain with their mother until after their next molt, or shedding of their exoskeletons until they developed and adapt like their mother.
Young centipedes resemble small adults. However, depending on the species, they may not hatch with their full number of legs. Additional pairs of legs and body segments are added as they molt. For example, hatchlings of house centipedes have only four pairs of legs, while the adults have fifteen. Stone centipedes hatch with six to eight pairs of legs, while the adults have fifteen. In other groups of species, such as the earth-loving centipedes and scolopenders, hatchlings are born with all the legs they could possibly get. All centipedes molt several times before reaching maturity in a matter of months or years.
Differences between Millipedes and Centipedes
Have one pair of legs on each segment
; Adults have as low as 30 legs (15 pairs) and high as 382 legs (191 pairs).
Have two pairs of legs on most segments
. Adults have as low as 22 legs (11 pairs) and as high as 750 legs (375 pairs).
Legs extend and are clearly shown on sides of the body; this position provides little support.
Legs are only partly visible on sides of the body; this position provides strong support, and the body is carried high off the surface.
Ends of the legs extend backwards behind the body and are not used for movement. Legs articulate sideways with body.
End legs extend sideways parallel to other legs. Legs move downward near their bottom side and helps in movement.
Flexible, flattened arthropods
Inflexible and have a round body
Almost completely carnivores.
Most are detritivores, however there are some exceptions of carnivores.
Adapted for speed.
Slow in movement and are
adapted for burrowing.
Adults vary in length from 10-270mm.
Adults vary in length from 3-270
Have prehensors ("poison claws") under their head which helps them kill their prey to eat.
hese are actually modified legs and appendages of the first segment; they are not mouthparts and aren't associated with the head.
Don’t have structures to bite,
pinch, or sting, and are harmless.
Noticeable in deserts* and dry environments.
Live in moist forests because most species lack a waxy cuticle; some species live at high elevations in "alpine" environments.
Males do not have modified legs for reproduction.
Males have modified legs for reproduction.
Have long antennae.
Have short antennae.
The exoskeletons of insects are coated with a waxy layer that keeps them from drying out, but centipedes don't have this waxy layer. Without their bodies to help them, desert-dwelling centipede species depend instead on their behavior to prevent water loss. They come out only at night when the air is cooler and wetter, and they spend their days hiding in the cool and moist shelters of animal burrows or beneath rocks.
An exoskeleton is a hard outer covering. An exoskeleton grows as the animal grows by adding layer over layer. The outer part of the exoskeleton is rough made to protect the animal, whereas the inner part is soft.
The millipede body has two main sections that have many segments; an anterior head region and a long segmented trunk.
Segments of the trunk section of the body have two pairs of legs each. The first ring after the head is legless, but the three segments after that only have one
pair of leg
It is so because they carry the sexual organs. The pre-anal rings located at the end of the body are always legless. The rest of the segments have two pairs of legs.
Millipedes have many legs, in fact the average amount is usually around four hundred.
Unfortunately even with t
heir many legs they can't go very fast. Whenever millipedes walk each pair of legs segments are lifted up at the same exact time. The pairs on the other side move in the opposite motion which is why it can’t go fast.
Millipedes have very simple eyes. They don't have very good eyesight. They can see light and dark but most images are blurry to them which makes them nearly blind. They use their other senses to keep them aware at night.
Two sensory organs (feelers) located towards the front of the millipede. Each antenna is made of 7 jointed segments.
These large, toothed cutting surfaces are used for eating; each mandible is made of two segments.
The underside of each segment, between the legs, which is relatively unprotected (also called the sternum). When in danger, the millipede curls up, protecting the underside.
The upper portion of each segment (also called the tergum). The tergum is covered with a hard, protective exoskeleton.
The body of the millipede (excluding the head).
Met thoracic glands
Almost all millipede species have glands that will warn off predators. Some millipedes can produce tiny gas clouds of hydrogen cyanide, which is very poisonous to their predators but does no harm to humans.
Centipedes have jointed legs connected to a long thin body
usually about 1.5 inches long.
A pair of antennae and jaw are attached to the head of the centipede. These antennas can be used to help feel its way around the ground.
They have a pair of venomous claws located at the most anterior segment (first segment), that are used for defense, and for capturing and paralyzing their prey.
Though some are known to be highly venomous, they cannot kill a human unless that person is allergic.
The word "centipede" comes from the Latin word
, which means "hundred," and
, which means "foot."
S & J
Centipedes bite with their adapted front legs.
In some cultures, centipedes are used for treatment of malaria.
When a leg is cut off it will regenerate.
Centipedes breathe through spiracles.
There are around 10,000 species of millipedes are known to man.
They have 150-400 legs. They have legs on nearly all the segments of the body, except the head.
They can grow from 2cm to 27cm in length. The giant African millipede can grow up to 37cm in length.
The life span of an ordinary and a giant millipede is 8-10 years.
Millipedes have a poor eyesight. Some species do not have eyesight at all. Millipedes have special sensory organs known as
organs located on their heads.
Half of the millipede population have been inturduced to north amarica from hulmans.
Some rare species can have 750 legs.
They have a special brush-like group of hairs on the 2nd or 3rd pair of their legs which they use to clean their antennae.
When threatened, they coil up into a ball to protect the more vulnerable underside.
The class of arthropods is thought to be among the first animals to have been on earth(443 million years ago).
The first arthropod was thought to be a millipede 1cm long.
This guy lived alone and was feeling a bit lonely, so he went to the pet shop to get something to keep him company. The pet shop owner suggested an unusual pet -- a talking millipede. "Okay," thought the man, "I'll give it a go..." So he bought a millipede, took it home, and for lack of advance preparations, made it a temporary home in a cardboard box. That evening testing his new pet, he leaned over the closed box and said, "I'm going to the pub for a drink, do you want to come too?" He waited a few moments, but there was no reply. He tried again, "Hey, millipede, wanna come to the boozer with me?" Again, no response. Disgusted by his gullible nature, he decided to give it one more try before returning the millipede to the pet shop. So he got real close to the box and repeated rather loudly, "I SAID, I'M GOING TO THE PUB FOR A DRINK. DO YOU WANNA COME?" "For God's sake, I heard you the first time!" snapped the millipede, "I'm just putting my shoes on."
Bibliographies & Citations:
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Animal Life Resource
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